Impact Factor 2016 : 1.050
Free Open Access : 1994 - 2005 (Vols. 1-16)
INTERNATIONAL SHORT COURSES ON ALLELOPATHY

Allelopathy is a new and potential field of research, as the term ‘Allelopathy’ was coined by Prof. Hans Molisch in 1937. It provides basis to sustainable Agriculture, hence, currently allelopathy research is being done in most countries of world. The indiscriminate use of pesticides for pests (Weeds, Insects, Nematodes, Pathogens) control has resulted in serious ecological and environmental problems. Some agricultural commodities may contain minute quantities of pesticides residues, with long term adverse effects on human and livestock health. Because of these reasons, serious ecological questions about the reliance on pesticides for pests control have been raised. Since the allelopathy is a new field of science, hence, there is less awareness among the Agricultural scientists about the scope of allelopathy in Agricultural and Biosciences.

Why International Allelopathy Courses?
These courses are necessary to make strong foundations of young future Allelopathy researchers with (i). Background knowledge, (ii). Recent Advances in Allelopathy, (iii). Methods of Allelopathy Research and (iv). Preparing effective Research Papers.

Benefits: The main benefits of these courses for the participants are to get (a) the Theoretical knowledge of Allelopathy, (b) Practical Experience of Allelopathy Research and (c) How to describe the Research Results effectively in Research Papers. Hence, these Courses are most necessary to properly train our future Allelopathy Researchers.

Manuscripts of Young Reseachers
Prof. S.S. Narwal, has been associated with Processing of Manuscripts for Allelopathy Journal since 1994, first as Regional Editor (1994-2002) and now as Chief Editor (2003-). During this long period, he has observed that (i). fairly large Number of Authors are beginners in the field of Allelopathy and (ii). many Manuscripts have following shortcomings, thus leading to their rejection/ delay in publication.

  • Knowledge of Allelopathy: The authors from Botany/Biosciences/ Life Sciences etc are not aware about the Applied Aspects of Allelopathy in Agricultural sciences, thus, they are unable to plan studies on the applied aspects. Likewise it is also true for Agricultural scientists, who do not know the fundamentals of Allelopathy. Hence, there is great need to strengthen the foundations of young researchers about this new field of Allelopathy. Poor knowledge of Allelopathy leads to the major problems viz., (a). Research Project's objectives are not well defined/choosen carefully and do not commensurate with the research Project, (b). many Authors could not decide good Title/Theme of their Research Project and (c). do not know the importance of their completed Research Project.
  • Methodology of Allelopathy Research: Authors are conducting research in their own way, without following Standard methods. This results in wastage of valuable time, energy and resources (inputs etc) without significant output, because such results may not be reliable. Poor knowledge of methodology leads to (i). badly planned Lab, Pot culture and Field experiments, (ii). Erroneous experimental Treatments. The erroneous experimental treatments, leads to (a). Treatments do not commensurate with the Objectives of study, (b).The doses/ rates/ levels of treatments are not uniform, besides, the treatments doses are too high or too low, (c). Number of treatments are too less or too many.
  • Statistical Analysis of Data: There is ignorance about the Importance of statistical analysis of data. Thus (i) Experimental Designs are not used in the Experimental study or wrong Experimental Designs are used and (ii). Experimental data is not analysed Statistically.
  • Poor Manuscripts Writing: Majority of Manuscripts are not written properly and do not follow Instructions to Authors, hence, their quality is poor. Thus, such Manuscripts are either rejected in good Journals or their publication is greatly delayed due to their 2-3 revisions.

History of Short Courses
The International Allelopathy Foundation had been receiving large number of requests from many countries for the Scientific Training of Allelopathy Scientists. Hence, the Foundation planned and developed various Short Courses on Allelopathy and started Organising these Courses from 2007. In 2007 following Courses were Organised:

Details of Allelopathy Courses Organised
S.No. Dates Name and Address of Institiute
1. June 2007 Sant Anna Institute, Pisa, Italy.
2. July 2007 College of Horticulture, Harbin, China
3. August 2007 College of Horticulture, CATAS, Hainan, China
4. July 2011 College of Horticulture, CATAS, Hainan, China
5. February 2014 Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Sousse, Tunisia

How to Organise the Course Presently we have planned only two International Courses on Allelopathy: (i). Preliminary Course and (ii). Advanced Course. These courses are conducted by the Internationally Renowned Allelopathy Scientists with long Experience. We strongly advise that first organize the Preliminary International Short Course on Allelopathy to train the beginners and Reseachers in the field of Allelopathy. Thereafter, the Advanced Course should be organized to fully train the Reseachers in the field of Allelopathy.

Responsibilities of Organising Institute (Host): (i). To pay for the Round Trip Air Ticket, Food and Hotel of Speakers/ Lecturers and (ii). To provide facilities for Lectures and Practical classes to conduct Course.

Facilities for Practicals: Laboratory (Equipments/Appratus, Experimental material etc.), Glass/ Screen House (Equipments/Appratus, Experimental material etc), Field (Transport, Equipments/Appratus, Experimental material etc),

Responsibilities of International Allelopathy Foundation (IAF): IAF will provide Technical support and manpower for the Courses: (i). To provide Internationally Renowned Allelopathy Scientists for Lectures and Practicals and (ii). To supply Lecture notes Soft copy (CD) to Organiser.

Coordinator: Prof. S.S. Narwal, Chief Editor, Allelopathy Journal is Coordinatior for these International Allelopathy Courses. For further information please contact:

Prof. S.S. Narwal
International Allelopathy Foundation
101, Sector-14,Rohtak-124 001, Haryana, India
Phone / Fax: + 91-1262-274101, Mobile: +91 9315496321
E. Mail: narwal_2016@yahoo.com,allelopathy_2014@yahoo.com

International Short Courses on Allelopathy (ISCA)

Based on our experience during 2007 of conducting the ISCA in two countries (Italy and China) and their feed back, we have designed following two ISCA Courses for Allelopathy Researchers. We strongly advise that first organize the Preliminary International Short Course on Allelopathy to train the beginners and Reseachers in the field of Allelopathy. Next year, the Advanced Course should be organized to fully train the Reseachers in the field of Allelopathy.

A. Preliminary Courses
Objectives: This comprehensive International Course on Allelopathy aims to provide information about the (i). Background knowledge of Allelopathy, (ii). Recent Advances in Allelopathy, (iii). Methods of Allelopathy Research, (iv). Knowledge of Statistical Analysis of data and (v). How to write effective Research Papers.

S.No. Course Title Duration Remarks
A-I. Basic Course 1. Fundamentals of Allelopathy 1 Week -
A-II. Methodology of Allelopathy Research 2 Weeks -
A-III. Basic Course 2. Statistics and Writing of Research Papers 1 Week -
A-IV. Special Topic (Select one Topic from following)
  • Allelopathy in Crop Production
  • Allelopathy in Multiple Cropping System - Crop Rotations
  • Allelopathy in Multiple Cropping System - Intercropping/ Crop mixtures
  • Allelopathy in Weed Management
  • Invasive weeds
  • Allelopathy in Forestry/Agroforestry
  • Allelopathy in Organic Agriculture
1 Week per Topic -
Total 4 Weeks

B. Advanced Courses
Objectives: This course aims to fully train the participants in Allelopathy Research. It provides ‘In-Depth’ Training to participants in fields of (i). Organic Chemistry (Natural Products), (ii). Biochemistry/Plant Physiology, (iii). Plant Bioassays and (iv). Microbiology (Biomass decomposition, Rhizosphere) etc.

S.No. Course Title Duration Remarks
B-I. Organic Chemistry (Natural Products) 1 Week -
B-II. Biochemistry/ Plant Physiology 1 Week - B-III. Plant Bioassays 1 Week -
B-IV. Microbiology (Biomass decomposition, Rhizosphere) etc 1 Week -
Total 4 Weeks

Most of the Allelopathic studies done in underdeveloped and Third World Countries, consists of only simple Petri Plate Bioassays to determine the effects of Donor plants extracts on germination and seedling growth of Recipient plant spp. This is not Allelopathy Research, but just one partial component. Such Manuscripts are Rejected by SCI Journals. Many studies have given excellent evidence for allelopathy but only few investigators have followed a specific protocol (similar to Koch's postulates for proof of disease) to provide the convincing Proof (Fuerst and Putnam, 1983). The proof of allelopathy involves the following sequence of studies:

  • Demonstrate the interference using the suitable controls, describe the symptoms and quantify the growth reduction.
  • Isolate, characterize and assay the chemical against species that were previously affected. Identification of chemicals that are not artifacts is essential.
  • Obtain toxicity with similar symptoms, when chemicals are added back to the system.
  • Monitor the release of chemicals from the donor plant and detect them in the environment (soil, air, etc.) around the recipient and ideally, in the recipient plant.

Complete Allelopathy Research: The complete Allelopathy research using these Postulates requires detailed studies on various aspects viz.,

  • Plant Physiological/Biochemical Processes,
  • Pattern of Biomass decomposition in soil,
  • Allelopathic interactions between the plant roots and microbes in Rhizosphere and
  • Isolation, identification and Characterization of allelochemicals.

To determine these aspects, studies are conducted in : (i). Lab Bioassays, (ii). Pot culture, (iii) Field studies and (iv). Isolation and identification of compounds responsible for such effects is also done. To fully train the researchers in Allelopathy Research, this advanced Course has been prepared.

Evaluation
Each participant is required to maintain the Date-wise record of work done by him/her in Practical Classes during the Course, for monitoring his evaluation. That is, all Studies/Investigations conducted by him in Laboratory, Glass Houses and Field Studies during the course are recorded Step-wise, so that he/she can consult these for future studies after the Course.

Presentation: On the last day of Course, every participant make 30- minutes presentation from ‘Results of his Investigations’ done during the Course.

Certificate: All participants who complete the Curse successfully, are awrded Certificates for completion of Course.

Sugesstions: At the end of course, suggestions are invited from the participants to improve future ISCA Courses.

New Short Courses: New Tailor made courses based on your requirements could also be prepared.

The details of these Courses are given on following pages:

A-I. Basic Foundation Course: Fundamentals of Allelopathy

Objectives: This course provides background and basic knowledge of Allelopathy to Participants. Hence, it is compulsory part of all International Courses on Allelopathy.

Allelopathy is a new and potential field of research. The term ‘Allelopathy’ was coined by Prof. Hans Molisch in 1937. It provides basis to sustainable Agriculture, hence, currently allelopathy research is being done in most countries of world. The indiscriminate use of herbicides for weed control has resulted in serious ecological and environmental problems viz., (I) Increasing incidence of resistance in weeds to important herbicides such as S-triazines and dinitroanilines. (II) Shifts in weed population (A) to species that are more closely related to the crops that they infest e.g. wild oat (Avena fatua L.) in oat, shattercane (Sorghum biocolor L. Moench) in sorghum (S.vulgare Pers., wild okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and red rice in rice both Oryza sativa L. and (B) minor weeds have become dominant. In crop fields many major weeds suppress Cyperus rotundus and keep its population under control, but after their chemical control, the competitors of C. rotundus have minimized and thereby it has become a dominant weed. (III) Greater environmental pollution and health hazards (A) particularly from surface and groundwater contamination which is used for human and livestock consumption, for example in USA, the ground water contains sizeable quantity of alachlor and atrazine widely used herbicides and (B) from their inhalation during handling and application. (IV) Toxic residues of herbicides pollute the environment and may prove hazardous to even future generations. (V) Some agricultural commodities may contain minute quantities of herbicide residues, with long term adverse effects on human and livestock health. Because of these reasons, serious ecological questions about the reliance on herbicides for weed control has been raised.

Since the allelopathy is a new field of science, hence, there is less awareness among the Agricultural scientists about the scope of allelopathy in Agricultural and Biosciences. Hence, this course aim to provide information about the (i) History of Allelopathy, (ii) Role of Allelopathy in Agroecosystems and (iii) Future Prospects of Allelopathy in Sustainable Organic Agriculture.

Course duration: One week Daily Course Hours : 4-6 (Lectures: 2.0 hours, Lab/Green House/ Field Practicals: 2-4 hours)
Course Outlines
Day Lecture Title of Lecture
1 Introduction: Meeting the Course participants
Lecture 1 Allelopathy in Sustainable Agriculture.
Lecture 2 History of Allelopathy
2 Lecture 3 Allelopathy in Crop Production
Lecture 4 Allelopathy in Multiple Cropping System - Crop Rotations
3 Lecture 5 Allelopathy in Multiple Cropping System - Intercropping/ Crop mixtures
Lecture 6 Allelopathy in Weed Management
4 Lecture 7 Allelopathy in Forestry/Agroforestry
Lecture 8 Allelopathy in Soil Sickness
5 Lecture 9 Allelopathy in Organic Agriculture
Lecture 10 Future Prospects and Potentials of Allelopathy

A-II. Course: Methodology of Allelopathy Research
Objectives: This Course provides, Theoretical knowledge (through Lectures) and Practical Experience (in Laboratory, Green Houses and Field Studies) to Participants about the Methods used in Allelopathy Research. A greater emphasis is given on Practicals, so that participants gains confidence by working themselves. Field Visits are major components of this Course to observe 'Allelopathic Interactions' in natural and managed Agroecosystems.

Allelopathy is a new field of science, as the term 'Allelopathy' was coined by Prof. Hans Molisch, a German Plant Physiologist in 1937. However, no standard methods are being used by various workers due to lack of compendium on the Techniques, hence, the results obtained are not easily comparable with each others. Till now much allelopathy research has been done in various fields of Agricultural and Plant Sciences. However, there is no compilation of various Research Methods used. Every scientist is conducting research in his own way. It is causing lot of problems to researchers working in underdeveloped/Third World Countries in small towns without Library facilities. Therefore, to make available the standard methods for conducting allelopathy research independently, this multi-volume book has been planned. Since allelopathy is multi-disciplinary area of research, hence, volumes have been planned for each discipline.

Prof. S.S. Narwal has planned a multi-volume Book Research Methods in Plant Sciences : Allelopathy. Six Volumes of this Book have been released : Volume 1. Soil Analysis (2004) , Volume 2. Plant Protection (2004), Volume 3. Plant Pathogens (2004), Volumes 4. Plant Analysis (2007), Volume 5. Plant Physiology (2007), Volume 6. Cell Diagnostics (2007). Three Volumes (Volume 7. Chemistry Methods, Volume 8. Plant Bioassays and Volume 9. Biochemical Methods) are under Printing and will be released in 2008. Besides, two Volumes (Volume 10. Statistical Methods and Volume 10. Weed Studies) are under preparation.

Course duration: Two weeks

Daily Course Hours : 4-6 hours (Lectures: 1-2 hours, Lab/Green House/ Field Practicals: 2-4 hours)

Course Outlines
Days Training Programme Contents
1-4 Observations of Allelopathic Interactions in Natural and Managed Agroecosystems
  • (i) Crop fields: Fallow lands - Practical-I
    Cultivated fields - Practical-II
  • (ii) Forestry: Natural forests - Practical-III
    Forest plantations - Practical-IV
  • (iii) Aquatic Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Rivers
5-7 Observations of Allelopathic Interactions in Natural and Managed Agroecosystems
  • (i) Crop fields: Fallow lands - Practical-I
    Cultivated fields - Practical-II
  • (ii) Forestry: Natural forests - Practical-III
    Forest plantations - Practical-IV
  • (iii) Aquatic Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Rivers
8-9 Sample collection, Processing, storage
  • (i) Plant samples- Practical-I
  • (ii) Soil Samples - Practical-II
10 Pot studies
11 Field studies
12 Field studies

A-III. Basic Course: Statistics and Writing of Research Papers
Objectives: This course provides basic knowledge of Statistics and information about the Lab, Glass House and Field Experiments. Besides it also provides training for 'How to Write Research Papers'?

After the researcher has obtained the data from his Lab/ Pot/ Field studies after spending too much valuable time, energy and resources. Next question arises, what to do with the data? or how to use it effectively? so that your important findings are published in good Journals. Agricultural scientists are taught Statistics and Experimental Designs in UG/ PG studies, hence, they possess good knowledge of Experimental Designs etc. While those from Botany/ Biosciences/ Life Sciences, have little or no knowledge.

Statistics:
The statistics is very important both before starting the Research Experiments and after their completion as under:

  • A. Before starting Research Experiments:
    • For planning of experiments,
    • To select the number of treatments/experimental factors
    • To select proper Experimental Designs and
    • To reduce Experimental Error.
  • B. After Completion of Research Experiments:
    • Tabulation and Compilation of Data.
    • Statistical Analysis of data to determine the significance of results obtained
    • To determine, if the results of various treatments are significantly different from other treatments.
    • To explain the results based on the Statistical significance.

Writing of Research Paper: After the completion of research studies and statistical analysis of data, the next most important step is to disseminate your important research findings world wide, by publishing in good Journal. The writing of good research paper is an Art, which one learns using certain Guidelines and through practice. The net output of all research efforts of a scientist is Research Paper. A nicely written research paper has more chances of Publication in good Journal and that too within reasonable time than a poorly written Paper.

Course duration:One week

Daily Course Hours : 4-6 hours (Lectures: 1-2 hours, Lab/Green House/ Field Practicals: 2-4 hours)

Course Outlines
Days Training Programme
PART I. Statistics
1. Introduction
2. Selecting suitable Experimental Design, reducing Experimental Error
3. Bioassays
4. Pot Cultures
5. Field Studies
6. Statistical Analysis of data
PART II. How to Write Research Paper
7. Inroduction ( Short communication, Research paper, Review Paper)
8-10. How to write effective Research Papers

A-IV. Course: Biochemical Interactions Between Plant and Organisms- Special Topics
Objectives: This course is specially designed to provide the detailed knowledge about the specific Allelopathic Studies required to be undertaken on the selected Special Topics.

The allelopathy plays major role in various types of Agroecosystems. Hence, to understand the allelopathic interactions in these systems, it is necessary to fully understand these Agroecosystems. Therefore, each of these systems have been dealt as Special Topic for In-Depth studies in the International Allelopathy Course as under:

S.No. Course Title Duration Remarks
I. Allelopathy in Crop Production 1 Week
(i). Allelopathy in Multiple Cropping System - Crop Rotations
(ii). Allelopathy in Multiple Cropping System - Intercropping/Crop mixtures
II. Allelopathy in Weed Management 1 Week
(i). Crop-Weed interactions
(ii). Weed Managemen
III. Invasive weeds 1 Week
IV. Allelopathy in Pest Management 1 Week
(i). Nematodes
(ii). Insect pests
V. Allelopathy in Forestry/Agroforestry 1 Week
VI. Allelopathy in Organic Agriculture 1 Week

Coordinator: Prof. S.S. Narwal, Chief Editor, Allelopathy Journal is Coordinatior for these International Allelopathy Courses. The further information may be obtained from following Address:

Prof. S.S. Narwal
International Allelopathy Foundation
101, Sector-14,
Rohtak-124 001, Haryana, India
Phone / Fax: + 91-1262-274101 , Mobile: +91 9315496321
E. Mail: narwal_2016@yahoo.com, allelopathy_2014@yahoo.com